Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions

Payment and Billing

For information on costs, please go to Pricing.

All prices are in US dollars, but we do accept several other major currencies, including RMB.

For all services, except Scientific Editing, we accept payments by wire/bank transfer, credit card, Paypal, Alipay, UnionPay, WeChat pay and Allpago.

For Scientific Editing, we accept payment by wire/bank transfer or credit card only.

We accept most major credit card providers including American Express, Diners Club, Discover, MasterCard, and Visa.

See our pricing page for more information on payment options.

For all services except for Scientific Editing, as soon as you have submitted an order, you will receive an online invoice. The invoice, along with all of your invoices from the past two years, will be available to download and print from your account Dashboard.

For Scientific Editing, you will receive an invoice by email.

The Springer Nature Author Services (SNAS) Bank allows you to purchase credits and use these credits to pay for future orders. Your credits will never expire.

Credits added using a purchase order will be available only after the invoice has been paid. Credits added using a credit card will be available immediately.

When you order services using credits, the cost of your order will be debited from your SNAS Bank account balance.

If you have a discount code, please enter it in the box labeled ‘Have a promotional code?’ on the Payment Details page, and click ‘Apply’.

If you have a discount code for Scientific Editing, let us know when you request a quote.

Nature Research Editing Service

Our editing service is open to any researcher or author regardless of where the text will be submitted for publication or grant review. It is not only for Springer Nature publications.

Both are suitable for scientific texts, but the two types of editing are very different. English Language Editing focuses on spelling, grammar and phrasing so that the language is not an obstacle to publication. Scientific Editing also looks at the argumentation, as well as the clarity of all aspects of your paper, to help you express your specialized scientific ideas as clearly as possible to your target audience.

For more information, please go to English Language Editing and Scientific Editing.

English Language Editing is available for all types of research-related text (including research manuscripts, reviews, grant applications, books, book chapters, theses, reports, letters, résumés and news articles) in a broad variety of subject areas, in disciplines from engineering and medicine to humanities and social sciences.

Scientific Editing is suitable for research manuscripts, grant applications, and reviews within the natural sciences (biology, medicine, chemistry, physics, and earth sciences). We do not edit in other fields, such as mathematics, engineering, humanities, and social sciences, unless the text has strong relevance to the natural sciences. Scientific Editing does not edit anything that will be formally assessed as part of a qualification, such as theses.

If you are unsure whether we can help, please contact us, and we will reply within one working day.

For information about our editors, please go to English Language Editing and Scientific Editing.

For information on turnaround times, please go to Pricing.

In keeping with ethical policies for editors, we are careful not to take control of the content away from the author – for example, all of our edits are tracked so that they can easily be accepted or rejected as you see fit. Moreover, we do not add significant novel material to a paper, as this would constitute (ghost) authorship rather than editing. See our policies for further details.

English Language Editing focuses solely on making your text sound as though it is written by a native English speaker, so although our editors have subject expertise and may occasionally point out what they believe are content-related problems, they will not review content or take any responsibility for content.

No, and to do so would be unethical – see our policies for further details. Editing of a paper by Nature Research Editing Service in no way implies that the paper will be selected for peer review or accepted by a Springer Nature publication or any other publication. Journal editors’ decisions are based on the suitability of each manuscript for that journal and are entirely independent of whether the manuscript has been edited by Nature Research Editing Service.

If you would like to have your manuscript formatted to adhere to particular journal requirements, please select AJE Manuscript Formatting. Alternatively, if you are mainly interested in reducing the word count, and would also like us to edit and comment on the paper in detail, you could obtain Nature Research Editing Service Scientific Editing and let us know that you are interested in suggestions about how to reduce the word count.

Please send us your work for editing in a Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx) file. Rich text format (.rtf) and text (.txt) files are also accepted – these will be edited in Microsoft Word.

We can also help users of LaTeX – simply copy the file into a Word document. Once we have edited the Word file, you will be able to review and incorporate our edits before transferring the text back into LaTeX.

To find the total word count in a Microsoft Word document, first take out the references and any numerical table data, and then use the word count feature in Microsoft Word (under the Review tab). If you are submitting the document for Scientific Editing, please ensure that you restore the deleted information after performing the word count, as the editors will need to see it.

Your word count will be verified by the assigned editor, and you will be contacted if there is a discrepancy that affects the price (whether an increase or decrease).

If you would like us to edit only part of your text, please request this when you upload your document.

Note that Nature Research Editing Service does not edit images. Please choose AJE Figure Formatting should you require help with your figures.

If you choose Scientific Editing, we strongly recommend that you provide us with all of the scientific material that is eventually intended for publication, including text that you do not want us to edit, so that our editors can understand your work in full. If you would like us to use some of this material for reference only, please let us know, and we will adjust the quote accordingly.

We always edit using the Track Changes feature in Word (under the Review tab), to give you the option of accepting or rejecting each edit. We strongly recommend that you check every edit, rather than simply incorporating all of our changes, in case our editors have inadvertently misunderstood the text at any point.

We suggest looking at our comments as you work through the document. In general, the comments point out where the text needs to be clarified or further considered.

Please check any relevant guidelines (e.g., for your chosen journal or funding body) regarding the acknowledgment of editing services.

For Scientific Editing, we recommend that you acknowledge our input in your cover letter, the Acknowledgments section, or both (whatever you feel is most appropriate). We do not believe that our service constitutes authorship, but a transparent indication of our input is in keeping with ethical expectations.

If you send us a document for English Language Editing, we will automatically evaluate its eligibility for a certificate. You do not need to request one.

If we deem that the English language is of the highest quality after a single round of English language editing, we will provide a certificate. You will be able to download the certificate, along with the edited document, from your account Dashboard.

You can provide the certificate to a journal to demonstrate that the language in your article has been professionally edited.

Note that the certificate does not cover changes made to the paper after we edit it.

Proof of Scientific Editing can be obtained on request.

If you did not receive a certificate, don’t be discouraged. It simply means that your document needs additional revisions.

After revising your language-edited document, if you wish to submit it for another round of English Language Editing, contact as you will be eligible for a discount on this resubmission if no certificate was awarded.

After revising your text, you may wish to resubmit it for another round of editing. For resubmissions, you may be eligible for a discount. Contact us if you wish to resubmit a document.

Video Abstracts

Yes. All members of our video production team are employees of AJE who are bound by confidentiality agreements. We will adhere to any embargo restrictions around unpublished articles and will not post a video publicly without author consent.

We will create video summaries of academic articles that have been accepted by peer-reviewed journals as well as research studies that have been accepted for presentation (talks or posters) at conferences. Our production team will perform an initial assessment of your article to match it with a qualified writer, and if we do not have the necessary expertise to deliver an accurate, high-quality video summary of your findings, we will refund your payment immediately.

The video production team is composed of writers, voice-over artists, illustrators, and animators with graduate-level scientific training from top US research universities. Our goal is to produce an accurate synopsis of your article that is accessible to a wide audience – from colleagues and potential collaborators within and outside the field to funders and members of the public who are interested in the research.

Our average production time is 3-4 weeks, but this can vary depending on author-requested revisions. Video abstracts get more traffic when they are included in press releases, so it is advantageous to allow plenty of time prior to publication to work with your institutional press office.

We accept all file types as long as each individual file is smaller than 100MB. For images/photographs, high-resolution (300 dpi) tiff files or jpgs are ideal. For line art, such as graphs, eps and pdf files are ideal as they will be editable for animation purposes, but very high-resolution (1000+ dpi) tiff and jpgs will also display well. We can also accept other image file types, such as png, gif, and bmp, but their use will depend on their display resolution.

Any of the following are useful to our writers and animators as we learn about your work and create your video:

  • Original, high-resolution figure or image files
  • A summary slide of your project (something you might use at the beginning of a talk to introduce your research)
  • Any short videos or other other multimedia that have been produced to accompany your research, if applicable

Our process includes several specialized teams that work together to accurately communicate your story:

  1. When you make your submission, you will be contacted by a member of our video production team, who will be your point of contact throughout the process. At this stage, we may ask you for additional information, including original figure files, your own description of your study’s implications, the funder and institution to include in the credits, and contact information for your institutional press officer.
  2. Your article will be matched to a field-specific writer who will carefully read your article and write a draft of the summary script. The writer will also generate a comprehensive list of keywords, techniques, model systems, reagents, and equipment used in your study that can be used to tag the video once it is posted.
  3. We will send the script back to you for feedback on accuracy and scope. If changes are necessary, we will send the revised version back to you for approval.
  4. After the script is finalized, a member of our voice-over team will make an audio recording of the summary.
  5. A member of the animation team will then work with the writer to add notes to the script describing potential animations to accompany each part of the text.
  6. An animator will then produce your video, using illustrations, key images from your figures, and high-resolution photos and video clips to visually tell the story in the script.
  7. We will upload the video to a private link that you can access to provide feedback on the animation. We will then work with you on any requested adjustments to finalize the video.
  8. Once you have approved the video, we will post it on YouTube, tag it with relevant keywords to enhance its discoverability, and add citation information and a link to the full article.
  9. We will return a summary document containing the written summary, keyword list, video links, download instructions, and tips for disseminating the video and tracking article success.

We will return the first draft of the script to you for feedback and will not proceed with animation until we have your final approval of the written script.

Please note: The script will ultimately be read aloud as the narration to your video, so the writing style is different from that of formal scientific writing. We try to avoid jargon and acronyms, and we intentionally write shorter sentences, which are easier for the listener to follow. We also limit the word count to 300 words to keep the script focused.

Academic Translation

As peer review and the decision to publish are independent processes that occur at a journal, we are not able to guarantee that you will be published after you use our services. We do guarantee that we will re-edit your paper for free if a journal mentions English as a problem.

Because a Translation re-edit may involve a variety of steps (e.g., Translation, Editing, and/or Formatting), we cannot provide a specific timetable that applies to all re-edits. Once you submit your paper for re-editing, we will determine what steps are needed and contact you with your actual deadline within 2 business days.

If you have any questions about your translation after you receive your completed paper, you are welcome to contact us, and we will assist you.

We have translators in every major field. If you don’t see your area of study on our list, please contact us, and we will let you know if any qualified translators are available.

Please email us the following files:

  • The same draft of your paper that you submitted to your journal
  • The most updated version of your paper, including any changes made to respond to the reviewers’ comments
  • The full text of the reviewers’ comments, as well as your response letter to the reviewers, if you have written one

We will review your files and contact you with additional information within one business day.

We do sometimes translate from English to Chinese, Portuguese and Spanish, but you will not see that as an option in your AJE account. Please e-mail us directly for more details.

No, currently, only manuscripts written in English are eligible for our LaTeX service.

Our basic translation service includes only translation and editing. If you would like formatting as well, please select ‘Manuscript Formatting’ in our menu of manuscript service options.

AJE will provide a certificate confirming that your paper was edited by AJE. Assuming that any changes we proposed are incorporated into the manuscript, the certificate guarantees that the English quality of your manuscript is appropriate for peer review. Every translation paper is eligible for a certificate. If your paper does not earn a certificate after translation and one round of editing, we will be happy to work with you to improve the language until the paper qualifies for a certificate.

Unlike traditional translation companies, we use translators who are active researchers in your area of study. This ensures that they know the jargon of your field in both English and your native language, guaranteeing the most accurate translation possible. AJE also includes a quality review for every translation by one of our experienced Academic Translation Advisors. We believe this additional step is critical to providing the most accurate translation of your important research. Moreover, our translation service includes English language editing by native speakers in your field, so you can be assured of the quality of the language in your final paper. Finally, our translation service includes unlimited English re-editing, so if you need to make changes to your paper later, we will re-edit it for free.

We do not currently provide notarized translations, which are usually required in order for this type of document to be used for official purposes.

Manuscript Formatting

We format manuscripts according to the journal’s guidelines for submission. Once a paper is accepted, the journal may perform copyediting and typesetting of the formatted paper to prepare it for publication.

Yes, we currently support EndNote. If you used EndNote to format your references, we will work within EndNote software to ensure that your references match the guidelines of your target journal. If you used a different reference manager software program, we are unable to maintain active field coding of references at this time.

No, unfortunately, we cannot format equations at this time.

Our formatters do not perform language editing (correction of grammar, phrasing, and word choice errors). Instead, they ensure that your manuscript is in agreement with journal guidelines. This includes layout; font; spacing between sections and lines of text; citations and references; formatting of headings and a check to ensure that all required sections are present; title page check; checking of word count, image number, and reference number limits and noting overages; and ensuring appropriate placement of tables and figures.

Yes, if you want us to format your tables. Our Figure Formatting service can help you prepare or format tables.

No, we do not currently work in Bluebook style.

Yes, please upload your .tex file for Formatting. During submission, please include any related dependency files that we will need to compile your LaTeX file (e.g., figures, .sty, .cls, .bib, etc.) as reference files. Please note that only manuscripts written in English are eligible for our LaTeX service. Because we cannot track changes in LaTeX, we will provide a compiled PDF of the file showing the changes that have been made to your document.

We can provide either Standard Editing or Premium Editing for your thesis or dissertation, and we can format figures such as graphs, photographs, illustrations, diagrams and tables. Please note that we do not currently offer manuscript formatting for theses or dissertations.

Figure Services

We are currently able to process the following file types:

  • Any standard graphic format, such as .tif, .jpg, .png, .bmp, or .gif
  • .doc, .docx (Microsoft Word)
  • .odt (OpenOffice Writer)
  • .ppt, .pptx (Microsoft PowerPoint)
  • .odp (OpenOffice Impress)
  • .xls, .xlsx (Microsoft Excel)
  • .ods (OpenOffice Calc)
  • .opj (Origin)
  • .cdr (CorelDRAW)
  • .ai, .ait (Adobe Illustrator)
  • .psd, .pdd (Adobe Photoshop)
  • .eps (various programs)

File types that are not on this list should be exported as .eps or .pdf files. If you use alternative software, we can also advise you on the best procedure to export figures in one of our recommended file types.

Yes. Tables can be formatted through our Figure Formatting service.

Many journals require figures to be submitted as .eps files, which you may not be able to open using your current software. Thus, in addition to any submission-ready files, we will also send .tif versions of your new figures for you to review.

We format the figures according to the author instructions for the final publication (assuming that these instructions are available).

In order to generate top-quality figures, images that are included within a figure should also be sent independently in the highest available resolution file. For ethical reasons, we are unable to make changes to brightness, contrast, or color balance, and we will not crop the image.

You must have access to the appropriate software to make changes to your figures within their new file type. Therefore, we recommend that you send the final version of your figures to us for formatting. However, if you need to make any changes to your figures after formatting, we will work with you to make the necessary adjustments.